As we saw in the previous article on the Documentary Hypothesis, pastors and seminarians are still being taught that rather than Moses, four guys known as J, E, P, and D wrote the first five books of the Bible (The Pentateuch). We saw how flawed their methods were. But why is this still being taught? Does archaeology support the JEDP Hypothesis?
The JEDP theory ignores archaeology and claims that there couldn’t have been writing at the time of Moses in 11500-1400 B.C.E. Remember, they dated the documents of the Pentateuch at 850 B.C.E. at the earliest. But we have the following discoveries:
The Gezer Calendar dated 925 B.C.E., which was a calendar used by a schoolchild, demonstrating that even children were taught how to write before the earliest date for the Documentarians.
The Ugaritic or Ras Shamra Tablets, dated about 1400 B.C.E., written in a Semitic language very closely related to Hebrew, and containing some of the same terms used for sacrifices in the Law of Moses, which the Documentarians alleged were invented after about 580 B.C.E. These sacrificial terms were in use about 1000 years before the JEDP theory says they were.
Alphabetic inscriptions written by Semitic mine workers were found at the Serabit Mines dated 1500 B.C.E. showed that even at that date writing was being used by all socioeconomic levels of the Semitic peoples in Palestine.
The Tel-El Amarna Tablets, from about 1370-1400 B.C. E., are letters written by the Canaanites to the Egyptians, which some scholars believe are a record of the Hebrew conquest of Canaan from the viewpoint of the Canaanites themselves. They are written in an Akkadian cuneiform language, and show that not only did all the surrounding people of Israel’s day use writing, but that the accounts of the Hebrew conquest are not legendary.
What these and other discoveries show is that writing was well established in Moses’s day, contrary to what the Documentarians taught.
Another assumption the JEDP theory makes is that Israel’s history and the Law of Moses must have been late inventions and not from the time period they claim to be. This idea has been completely refuted by archaeological discoveries. For example:
The Nuzi Tablets, dated from the 15th century B.C.E. confirm that many of the social customs mentioned in the history of the Biblical patriarchs fit the time period they claim to be from, and do not fit any later periods; such as:
The setting aside of the inherited claims of an adopted son if a natural son was subsequently born such as Abraham did with his servant in Genesis 15,
A childless wife using her maidservant as a surrogate mother such as in the case of Jacob’s sons born to Leah and Rachel’s maidservants,
The use and binding nature of oral deathbed wills, such as with Jacob’s will in Genesis 49,
The possession of the family Teraphim (household gods) allowing someone in the family to claim the estate, as in the case of Rachel taking her father’s Teraphim in Genesis.
These and other customs are demonstrated by the archaeological evidence to fit only this time period, refuting the idea that they must be late inventions. Cyrus Gordon in an article in The Journal of Bible and Religion entitled The Patriarchal Age, comments: “The cuneiform contracts from Nuzu have demonstrated that the social institutions of the patriarchs are genuine and pre-Mosaic. They cannot have been invented by any post-Mosaic J, E, D, or P” 
Other archaeological confirmations of Israel’s history include:
The City of Ur was found and excavated and evidence showed that it was a large and well established city at just the time Abraham was living.
Studies of ancient sites revealed that very large heavy doors were used on dwellings from 2200 to about 1600 B.C.E., which fits the time period of the account of Lot, where the evil men of the city could not get through the heavy door of his house. Houses during the 900-600 B.C.E. did not have these kinds of doors. 
Some critics held to the idea that the Jordan Valley was sparsely populated during Abraham’s day, but later discoveries showed that it was in fact well populated, with more than 70 sites that existed there, some as old as 3000 B.C.E. Also found and excavated and shown to be inhabited in Abraham’s time were the cities of Schechem and Bethel.
The ancient cities of the Jordan plain, including Sodom and Gomorrah, were thriving and populated during the third millenium B.C.E, in full accord with the Biblical record.
Genesis 14, the account of Abraham rescuing Lot from the group of Elamite Kings was once thought to be fiction, but now evidence shows that the political conditions where such a group of kings could have been operating fits that time period, and only that time period that the Bible specifies. Other discoveries have shown that the names of the Elamite kings fit that time period  , also that in fact there was extensive travel between Ur and Canaan and between Babylonia and Palestine, contrary to critic’s charges , and that the route that the invading kings took lines up with that time period and not afterwards ,  .
The Israel Stela of Egyptian King Merneptah, was a monument discovered that dates from the early 1200’s B.C.E., and contains the first mention of the name “Israel” outside the Bible, long before the JEDP theory says that Israel existed.
It’s quite obvious that the JEDP theory needs to either catch up with Biblical archaeology, or be abandoned as outdated.